UK Computer Science Funding REF 2014 Analysis

In REF 2014 eighty nine institutions were submitted to the Computer Science and Informatics subject area. The analysis below examines the data made available at the (REF Results Webpage – UoA 11) and takes note of the total funding pot for each year 2008/9 to 2012/3. This is broken down by institution type, and country.

Total Research Income

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
England £113,747,632 £114,851,075 £117,463,599 £120,655,467 £124,889,051
Scotland £24,967,458 £24,284,379 £23,235,215 £21,158,815 £24,196,970
Wales £5,521,097 £5,771,539 £6,138,836 £5,813,848 £5,324,725
Ulster £4,880,387 £5,224,918 £6,397,775 £4,363,975 £4,416,940
Total £149,116,574 £150,131,911 £153,235,425 £151,992,105 £158,827,686

The table below outlines the number of universities submitted in each location and the type of institution. As can be seen England had the majority of university submissions at 69, followed by Scotland at 12, Wales at 6 and Ulster with 2, giving a total of 89 submissions. The largest group of institution type submissions was from Post-92 universities at 37, then followed with 30 from a selection of redbrick / glass plate type institutions, and the remaining 22 submissions from Russell Group institutions. One may also see the number of submitted staff based on institution type. As can be seen a total of 2158 staff were submitted to REF (Category A & C).

Location Submissions Institution Type Institutions Staff Submissions
England 69 Russell Group 22 912
Scotland 12 Post-92 37 546
Wales 6 Other 30 700
Ulster 2
Sector Total 89 89  2158

Calculating the average across each location and the computer science sector as a whole yields the table below. Looking at the figures for the 2012/13 academic year one can see that Ulster had the greatest average research income (A little over £2200K) – although it does have just two submitted institutions. Wales has the lowest average at a little under £900K. The total income at £158.8M averages out across the 89 universities to £1785K per School\Department.

2008-09 2009-10  2010-11 2011-12  2012-13
England £1,648,516 £1,664,508 £1,702,371 £1,748,630 £1,809,986
Scotland £2,080,622 £2,023,698 £1,936,268 £1,763,235 £2,016,414
Wales £920,183 £961,923 £1,023,139 £968,975 £887,454
Ulster £2,440,194 £2,612,459 £3,198,888 £2,181,988 £2,208,470
Sector Average £1,675,467 £1,686,875 £1,721,746 £1,707,776 £1,784,581

The 22 Russell Group universities brought in  over £101M for the 2012/13 academic year, this accounts for 64% of the total income across all 89 institutions, thereby leaving £57M to be distributed across the remaining 67 schools\departments. As seen in the table below.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Russell Group Totals £93,103,342 £91,483,897 £89,962,574 £93,528,618 £101,664,055
Remaining Income £56,013,232 £58,648,014 £63,272,851 £58,463,487 £57,163,631

This £57M can be further broken down by the distribution of same between the Post-92 institutions and the rest, as detailed below. The other 30 institutions for the 2012/13 year were awarded 39.7% the income of the Russell Group institutions, with the 37 Post-92 institutions receiving just 16.5% in comparison to the Russell Group.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Others £41,748,295 £43,056,467 £46,610,949 £41,427,815 £40,409,460
Post 92 £14,264,937 £15,591,547 £16,661,902 £17,035,672 £16,754,171

Looking at the average income per submitted staff member may help to give a better understanding of the funding distribution across the three different groupings. Again looking at the 2012/13 year the £111,474 average income of a Russell Group staff member is 1.93 times that of the other universities and 3.63 times that of a Post-92 staff member. Taking all 67 of the non Russell Group institutions the average staff member research income of £45,878 is 2.43 times less than a Russell Group member.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Staff
RG £102,087 £100,311 £98,643 £102,553 £111,474 912
Non RG £44,954 £47,069 £50,781 £46,921 £45,878 1246
Other £59,640 £61,509 £66,587 £59,183 £57,728 700
Post-92 £26,126 £28,556 £30,516 £31,201 £30,685 546

The average income per school\department may be seen below as is clearly evident the research income of a Russell Group institution is on average 10.2 times greater than a Post-92 school\department and 3.43 times more an the other 30 university schools\departments.

2008-09  2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Institutions
RG Average £4,231,970 £4,158,359 £4,089,208 £4,251,301 £4,621,093 22
Non RG  Avg £836,018 £875,343 £944,371 £872,589 £853,189 67
Other Avg £1,391,610 £1,435,216 £1,553,698 £1,380,927 £1,346,982 30
Avg for Post 92 £385,539 £421,393 £450,322 £460,424 £452,815 37

Scotland
Looking closer at Scotland which had 12 submitted institutions two of these Russell Group universities – Edinburgh and Glasgow account for most of the funding income. As can be seen below the research funding gap between 2008 and 2012 has been narrowing between Edinburgh\Glasgow and the other 10 institutions. In 2008 the difference was 1.69 this has now reduced in 2012 to 1.05 times that of Edinburgh\Glasgow for the remaining funds. The bottom row in the table below shows the average income received across the 10 non Russell Group institutions.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Institutions
RG Scotland £15,711,247 £14,353,304 £12,432,224 £10,609,597 £12,416,813 2
Non RG Scotland £9,256,211 £9,931,075 £10,802,991 £10,549,218 £11,780,157 10
Non RG Avg £925,621 £993,108 £1,080,299 £1,054,922 £1,178,016

Looking further into the breakdown the table below highlights the research income awarded to each type of university, Post-92 (4), Other (6) and Russell Group (2) within Scotland. As can be seen the Russell Group brought in roughly 5.1 times the income of the Post-92 sector, whilst the “Other” group brought in about 3.83 times that of the Post-92 institutions.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Institutions
Scotland Post-92 £1,932,190 £2,115,600 £2,138,764 £2,341,638 £2,436,902 4
Scotland Other £7,324,021 £7,815,475 £8,664,227 £8,207,580 £9,343,255 6
Scotland RG £15,711,247 £14,353,304 £12,432,224 £10,609,597 £12,416,813 2
Scotland Total £24,967,458 £24,284,379 £23,235,215 £21,158,815 £24,196,970 12

Calculating the average research income for each category of university yields the following table below.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Institutions
Scotland Post-92 £483,048 £528,900 £534,691 £585,410 £609,226 4
Scotland Other £1,220,670 £1,302,579 £1,444,038 £1,367,930 £1,557,209 6
Scotland RG £7,855,624 £7,176,652 £6,216,112 £5,304,799 £6,208,407 2

The table below outlines the research income for the 12 institutions in Scotland submitted to REF. They have been ordered according to total research income over the five year period with Edinburgh on top with an income of just over £50M accounting for 43.02% of the Scottish total research income. This is followed by Glasgow again with a eight figure total income of £14M for the 5 years of REF accounting for 12.59% of the Scottish total.

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Edinburgh £11,782,758 £10,646,353 £9,715,972 £8,406,203 £10,140,922
Glasgow £3,928,489 £3,706,951 £2,716,252 £2,203,394 £2,275,891
Heriot-Watt £1,193,172 £1,487,196 £2,041,984 £2,253,042 £2,386,225
Dundee £1,893,382 £2,162,972 £1,932,633 £1,582,233 £1,790,045
Aberdeen £1,310,316 £1,393,901 £1,741,994 £1,772,829 £2,678,515
St Andrews £1,496,331 £1,389,019 £1,540,910 £1,602,031 £1,501,825
Edinburgh Napier £858,647 £669,439 £683,900 £1,219,476 £1,304,373
Strathclyde £822,758 £937,109 £968,227 £615,779 £303,535
Stirling £608,062 £445,278 £438,479 £381,666 £671,110
UWS £393,000 £744,000 £548,000 £299,000 £425,000
RGU £418,237 £395,480 £401,576 £518,756 £504,205
Glasgow Caledonian £262,306 £306,681 £505,288 £304,406 £215,324
Scotland Year Total £24,967,458 £24,284,379 £23,235,215 £21,158,815 £24,196,970

The 5 year total research income percentage of the Scottish total research income, REF Score and number of submitted staff may be seen in the table below. Many articles may be seen online discussing a strong relation between research income and REF score, yet as can be seen below several institutions with a lower research income have performed better than others in terms of REF score.

5 Year Total % of 5 Yr Total REF Score Staff Submitted
Edinburgh £50,692,208 43.02% 3.20 104
Glasgow £14,830,977 12.59% 3.10 43
Heriot-Watt £9,361,619 7.94% 2.65 29
Dundee £9,361,265 7.94% 2.75 13
Aberdeen £8,897,555 7.55% 2.90 20
St Andrews £7,530,116 6.39% 2.70 24
Edinburgh Napier £4,735,835 4.02% 2.00 12
Strathclyde £3,647,408 3.10% 2.55 21
Stirling £2,544,595 2.16% 2.40 16
UWS £2,409,000 2.04% 2.00 14
RGU £2,238,254 1.90% 2.35 19
Glasgow Caledonian £1,594,005 1.35% 1.80 13
Scotland Total £117,842,837
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